you will explore relevant policies and both points of view on Title IX pertaining to funding of athletic programs and conclude the paper with your opinion and your perceived Biblical point of view.


In this position paper, you will first need to explain relevant policies and an overview of the debatable topic. Provide specific examples of recent problems. In the explanation of the issue (and throughout the paper), move beyond your favorite sport and provide examples from different sports.

The majority of the paper will be a summary of both points of view on the debatable topic. Both points of view should get equal attention, details, and explanation. Start the paper with an introduction to the topic and an overview of what to expect in the paper. Make sure you include a thesis statement.  In the next section, labeled with APA headings, explain one of the points of view and cite the most credible people who make that argument (preferably research journals). In the next section, explain the opposing point of view again citing the most credible resources. Both points of view should get equal attention, details, and explanation. If the research overwhelmingly supports one of the points of view, find examples of teams that use the other point of view and explain why they would want to use this. You will finally present your opinion on the topic in the final section. Here, you will include your perceived Biblical standpoint on the issue. You will need to reference scripture that supports your point of view. As a classical book, the Bible does not need a reference according to APA.

When applicable, reference quantitative data such as statistics and applicable financial information. This is a research paper so find the most credible research data. If you are using an idea from another coach or one you found through a book, internet, or other method; make sure you give them credit and reference. You need at least four journal references. With that said, most of the best papers over the years have over 10 credible journal articles referenced. All information that is not common knowledge needs to be cited (in-text and reference list). No more than 50% of citations should be website references and at least 50% of the references should be from the last fifteen years. If you need help finding appropriate references, you can contact me or the CN library for support. The Perdue Online Writing Lab (APA Owl)  is a great resource to help with proper writing and APA formatting. The APA Publication Manual is the text that explains APA style in depth. Also, Carson-Newman’s English Writing Lab can help you with organization, grammar, and other issues to help you write this and other papers.


Formatting & Style – Use APA 7th edition

  • As a classical book, the Bible does not need a reference, according to APA.
  • You need to make sure you cite any statement that is not common knowledge. This will likely mean that you will use more than the minimum number of citations. As a professional in the field, it is possible that you will make comments not getting the information from an article. Even if this is the case, you will have to go back and find a peer-reviewed publication that supports statements that are not common knowledge.



  • Before you write, make sure you watch the video I posted at the beginning of this class. I go over a sample paper and explain how you should be organizing your paper. You will be able to find the two sample papers in Canvas under “files” then “Assignment Files” then “Sample Position Papers”. These sample papers are in the same format but a different topic. Therefore, I put the assignment at the end of the paper. You will not need to put the assignment at the end of your paper.
  • As a research paper, you will need credible original sources to back up all positions. I highly encourage you to use the library We have very competent professionals that are eager to help. You pay library fees, let them help you with the hard searches. I say this as it can be very difficult to find researchers who’s work supports some of the counterarguments.
  • When writing these, use APA version 7. It really is better than version 6. You can buy the APA handbook, but in my opinion, everything you need can be found in the APA Owl and it is better organized there.
  • When writing the position papers, read all the directions carefully. The students who do bad on these are the ones that read the title, a few lines, and start writing without reading all the directions.
  • I also suggest you use an outline for this assignment. I have had students ramble on with a lack of direction and that never works out well.



Although not a complete literature review, here are some articles to start your research on Title IX:

  • Acosta, R. V., & Carpenter, L. J. (2012). Women in intercollegiate sport: A longitudinal, national study: thirty-five year update, 1977-2012. Brooklyn College.
  • Beaubier, D. (2004). Athletic gender equity policy in Canadian Universities: Issues and possibilities. Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy, issue 34.
  • Bell, R. C. (2007). A history of women in sport prior to Title IX. The Sport Journal, 10(2).
  • Civil Rights, Office of. “Title IX and Sex Discrimination.” Title IX and Sex Discrimination. United States Department of Education, 29 Apr. 2015. Web. 26 June 2015. <>
  • Department of Education, United States. “34 C.F.R. Part 106.” 34 C.F.R. Part 106. United States Department of Education, 21 Mar. 1979. Web. 26 June 2015. <>
  • Hanson, K. (2009). More than title ix: How equity in education shaped the nation. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
  • Irick, Erin, “NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rates Report: 1981–1982 – 2010–2011.” (Indianapolis, IN: National Collegiate    Athletics Association, 2011), p. 69
  • Klinker, D. (2003). Why Conforming with Title IX Hurts Men’s Collegiate Sports. Seton Hall J. Sport L., 13, 73.
  • Marburger, D. R., & Hogshead-Makar, N. (2003). Is Title IX really to blame for the decline in intercollegiate men’s nonrevenue sports. Sports L. Rev., 14, 65.
  • McNaughton, M. J. (2012). Insurrectionary womanliness: Gender and the (boxing) ring. The Qualitative Report, 17(17), 1.
  • National Collegiate Athletic Association. (2006). 82–2004-05 NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rates Report. Indianapolis, IN: National Collegiate Athletic Association.
  • Redmond, M. L., Ridinger, L. L., & Battenfield, F. L. (2009). Website coverage of NCAA basketball: are women getting equal playing time?. Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal, 18(1), 78.
  • Reeser, J. C. (2005). Gender identity and sport: is the playing field level?. British journal of sports medicine, 39(10), 695-699.
  • Robertson, R. W. (2006). Tilting at Windmills: The Relationship Between Men’s Non-Revenue Sports and Women’s Sports. LJ, 76, 297.
  • Smith, R. K. (1997). Solving the Title IX Conundrum with Women’s Football. Tex. L. Rev., 38, 1057.
  • Spradlin, L.K. (2012). Diversity Matters. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
  • Stader, D. L., & Surface, J. L. (2014). Not Second-Class: Title IX, Equity, and Girls’ High School Sports. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 87(3), 119-123.
  • Suggs, W. (2003). Cutting the field: As colleges eliminate teams, the lessons athletes learn are losing out to commercial interests. Chronicle of Higher Education, 6.
  • United States Department of Labor (2015). Title ix: Education amendments of 1972. United States Department of Labor. Retrieved from
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