What are the seven essential elements to communication?

1) How can the centralized management feature of a computer network be used for training

purposes? [3 marks]


2) What are the seven essential elements to communication? Describe each one. [21 marks]


3) What are three advantages of a peer-to-peer network? [9 marks]


4) How would you describe the configuration of a server-based network? [5 marks]


5) What is attenuation? How is it measured for data communications? [4 marks]


6) Why is baseband signaling instead of broadband signaling used for data communication? Give

two reasons. [6 marks]


7) How does fiber optic cable send data? [3 marks]


8) Name the 7 layers of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model and describe function of

each layer. [49 marks]

9) Why does a bus topology network slow down when more devices are added to the network?

[10 marks]


10) How does a ring topology actively participate in distributing packets? [5 marks]


11) What does a hub do in a multipoint star topology? How do newer-generation hubs differ from standard hubs? [15 marks]


12) What are the hybrid technologies star bus and star ring? Discuss an advantage of each. [20



13) How does Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) work? [15 marks]


14) How is a switch different from a hub? How does a switch affect network speed? [15 marks]


15) What is a virtual private network (VPN)? [10 marks]


16) How does simple network management protocol (SNMP) work? [10 marks]


17) Illustrate all the fields of IPv4 using a diagram and explain them. [30 marks]


18) Fragmentation is the process to divide a block received into multiple blocks of some smaller

bounded size. Discuss why fragmentation is needed. [10 marks]


19) Explain how the Internet Protocol works with an example. [20 marks]


20) How does a TCP make a network more reliable? [18 marks]


21) Briefly explain any 5 common HTTP methods. [10 marks]


22) Discuss disadvantages of Voice over IP (VoIP)? [12 marks]

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Given the above information, how many people did McKinsey and BCG hire in the year 2013?

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write a program that reads a file and displays all of the words in it that are misspelled.

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