The Emergence of Explicit Knowledge from Implicit Learning
The second article gives an overview of a study that was carried out in order to determine if the knowledge acquired on statistical contingencies is unconscious even if it can be accessed to the conscious awareness (Goujon et al., 2014). Prior to the presentation of the results of the study, the authors explain that observers have the ability to extract statistical contingencies that are available in their visual settings. As such, the study was intended to provide a confirmation on this observation.
According to the observations that were made by the authors, conscious awareness is responsible for our knowledge and awareness of regularities. This was confirmed by the first experiment (experiment 1) that was conducted. The first experiment also confirmed that during the early phases of training, learning of regular objects and structures occur at an unconscious stage/level. The second and the third experiments elaborate the relationship that exists between consciousness and learning. Specifically, the second experiment inquired the nature of knowledge that an individual acquired in the initial training phase.
This experiment is an extension of the first experiment because it originated from the analysis of the association between context, target and location as opposed to the general facilitation, which was emphasized in the first experiment. On the other hand, the third experiment was prompted after the revelation of the existence of the contextual cuing effect and it was guided by two goals. Even though the third experiment shares similar principles with the second experiment, it was slightly different because the implementation of memory tasks was carried out in different blocks, between the second and the third block (Goujon et al., 2014).
Unpacking the Cross-Level Effects of Tenure Diversity, Explicit Knowledge, and Knowledge Sharing On Individual Creativity
In this article, Gilson et al. (2013), explain that the composition of workforces in organizations has changed tremendously. To confirm their argument, the authors carried out a study in order to explore the impacts of tenure diversity and the creativity that various workforces express. The study was carried out in 341 insurance agents in Korea. The authors also employed implicit knowledge on individual levels in order to facilitate mediation between the respondents’ creativity and tenure diversity.
The study was objective and it facilitated the attainment of the goals. From their study, Gilson et al. (2013) established that the ability and willingness of people to share knowledge is paramount in the moderation of the relationship that exists between a person’s explicit knowledge and tenure diversity. Similarly, the authors found out that tenure diversity can positively impact an individual’s explicit knowledge provided that knowledge sharing is encouraged.
With reference to the findings of the research, it is apparent that explicit knowledge can have indirect effects on a person’s creativity. As such, sharing of knowledge should be embraced at all times. From the results of the study, it can be deduced that tenure diversity is related to knowledge sharing, explicit knowledge and creativity. The findings of this study are relevant and applicable in the present day life because while working in groups is encouraged, such groups will not be beneficial if knowledge is not shared among the members. Explicit knowledge acts as a mediator between tenure diversity and creatively and its impact and positives can be limited if sharing of information is low. For instance, complex tasks and challenges in life can be tackled if those who are involved come together and share the experiences that they have.
Goujon, A., Didierjean, A., & Poulet, S. (2014). The emergence of explicit knowledge from implicit learning. Memory & Cognition, 42(2), 225-236. doi:10.3758/s13421-013-0355-0
Gilson, L. L., Lim, H. S., Luciano, M. M., & Choi, J. N. (2013). Unpacking the cross-level effects of tenure diversity, explicit knowledge, and knowledge sharing on individual creativity. Journal Of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 86(2), 203-222. doi:10.1111/joop.12011