## rotate the plane of polarization of one polarized beam by 45.0°.

Your team is working in an optical research laboratory. Part of the apparatus you are working on involves polarized beams of light. Your supervisor wants to rotate the plane of polarization of one polarized beam by 45.0°. She can do that by inserting a single polarizer at 45.0° to the plane of polarization of the original beam, but, according to Malus’s law, she then loses 50% of the intensity of the light. She gives you the task of designing a stack of polarizers, each with its axis at the same angle with the axis of the previous polarizer, that will rotate the plane of polarization of the beam without losing more than 10.0% of the intensity of the original beam. She wants to know by quitting time tonight (a) how many polarizers she needs in the stack and (b) the angle between adjacent polarizers.

### determine an approximate value for the average magnitude of the magnetic field in which the electron resides.

You have a new summer job with NASA and are working on astronomical observations using electromagnetic radiation that is not in the visible range. Your supervisor has explained 21­cm radiation….

### What advice do you give the attorney?

You are hired as an expert witness by the attorney representing a doctor. The doctor is being sued by a patient who claimed radiation damage from the doctor’s x-ray machine…..

### determine the percentage of the total molar specific heat that is attributed to free electrons in gold.

The Dulong–Petit law states that the molar specific heat of solids is 3R at higher temperatures, where R is the gas constant. For metals, this law is obeyed at room….