Topic: Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular disease
The paper must include a title page, abstract, main text (background/introduction, methods, discussion, conclusion), and references.
A structured abstract is required at the beginning of the paper! The abstract should not exceed 300 words. The abstract must be self-contained and clear without reference to the text and should be written in such a way that a general reader can understand the concept of the paper.
The abstract format should include four sections: “Objective” (the purpose or aim of your paper), “Research Design and Methods” (literature research,..), “Results/Discussion”, and “Conclusions” (Validity, Limits and Perspectives of the paper).
Papers should be written in clear, concise English. Please read the articles that are uploaded in the module section: “How to write a scientific Paper”!
A good structure to follow for the main document after the structured abstract would be:
All manuscripts must be spaced at 1.5, in Times New Roman 12-point font, and saved as Word.doc. In addition, please do not “lock” or “page protect” your document.
Abbreviations and Units. Abbreviations should be used only when necessary, e.g., for long chemical names, procedures, or terms used throughout the article. All abbreviations must be defined at first use. Abbreviate units of measure only when used with numbers. Abbreviations may be used in tables and figures.
Title Page. Every paper must have an accompanying title page. The title page should include the title; the first name, middle initial, last name, and highest academic degree of the author; and e-mail address. Please include the word count.
Font. Text, including title and author names, should be in 12-point Times New Roman. Please avoid using boldface font. Text in tables should be no smaller than 10-point font.
Margins. Margins should be 1″ at the top and bottom and 1″ on the left and right sides.
Section Headers. Except for the Abstract, new sections should not begin on new pages. Each new section should immediately follow the end of the previous section.
References. The reference list should go at the end of the document, after the main text. Limit your references to not more than 30 references and not less than 10 references.
Use EndNote as your reference manager of choice. If you have not already done so, please download and install EndNote X7 from the LLU website. The software is free for all LLU students. You will find all necessary information regarding download, installation and use of the software here:
If you have any questions regarding its use please contact: [email protected]
Alternatively you may want to use the open source program JabRef which you can download here: http://jabref.sourceforge.net/
Please familiarize yourselves with either software ahead of time as you will need to use it! No assistance in regards to the use of the software will be given by the instructors.
Reference numbers in the text should appear in chronological order in normal type and in parentheses [e.g., “In the study by Norton et al. (23)…”]. Please do not use the word footnote or word endnote function to cite studies or create a reference list. A reference manager must have the ability to customize the display of references. For example, the reference application should have the option to list the references at the end of the paper, as opposed to listing the references as endnotes or footnotes at the bottom of each page, and should not embed the list in the text as a series of endnotes/footnotes. When using your reference manager (e.g., Thomson’s EndNote Reference Program), don’t forget to generate the list as a bibliography in a style that is similar to the Vancouver Style which is preferred in the medical sciences.
Learning Resource Centre – references according to the Vancouver Style
Vancouver Style – PDF File
Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals
Tables. Table legends should be inserted below the table and not be included inside the table. Tables should be created using Word and the “Insert Table” command. Please use Times New Roman font, no smaller than 10-point. Symbols for units should be confined to column headings. Each row should contain only 1 line of information.
Abbreviations should be kept to a minimum and defined in the table legend. For footnotes, use the following symbols consecutively, left to right, top to bottom of the table: *, †, ‡, §, ||, ¶, #, **, ††, etc.