determine whether and to what extent a reactor is backmixed.

The simplified case of Eq. (2.8) with no reaction (Da = 0) is important and provides a very useful experimental method to determine whether and to what extent a reactor is backmixed. The method is known as tracer analysis, also known as stimulus–response experiments. The stimulus represents a change in the inlet conditions, and the change in concentration in the outlet as a function of time is measured and represents the response curve of the system. The exit response can be predicted from the above analysis and matched with the experimental data to test some of the model assumptions, for example, whether the assumption that the system is well mixed holds or not. Two types of tracer injection are common: (i) step injection and (ii) pulse or bolus injection. The outlet responses for these two cases are presented below. This section is also useful for reaction engineering studies, where stimulus–response experiments are common.

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set up and solve a case-study example of the light-intensity distribution in a photochemical reactor.

Photochemical reactor modeling: a case-study problem. Although radiation is important in heat transfer, an analogous model can be used in the design of photochemical reactors. The modeling of these reactors….

Write a critique on this technique of secondary-emission measurement.

Secondary-emission measurement: a case-study problem. An indirect way of measuring of secondary emission from ponds or large bodies of water used in waste treatment is to measure the concentration and….

set up a mass transfer model and evaluate the variation of the local mass transfer coefficient at various locations in the plate.

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on an inclined susceptor: a case-study problem. An important application of convective mass transfer theory is in CVD processes employed to coat surfaces with thin films….