Describe the tubes into which the fluid would be routinely placed.

1. A 50-year-old man presents in the emergency department with severe pain and swelling in the right knee. Arthrocentesis is performed and 20 mL of milky synovial fluid is collected. The physician orders a Gram stain, culture, and crystal examination of the fluid, as well as a serum uric acid. She requests that the synovial fluid be saved for possible additional tests.

a. Describe the tubes into which the fluid would be routinely placed.

b. If the patient’s serum uric acid level is elevated, what type of crystals and disorder are probable?

c. Describe the appearance of these crystals under direct and compensated polarized light. d. Why were the Gram stain and culture ordered?

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Explain the different interpretations offered by these two tests.

1. A semen analysis on a vasovasostomy patient has a normal sperm concentration; however, motility is decreased, and clumping is observed on the wet preparation. a. Explain the possible connection….

Name an additional test that could provide more diagnostic information.

1. Microscopic screening of a stool from a patient exhibiting prolonged diarrhea shows increased fecal neutrophils and normal qualitative fecal fats and meat fibers. a. What type of diarrhea do….

Describe the appearance of the stool specimens if steatorrhea is present.

1. Laboratory studies are being performed on a 5-year-old boy to determine whether there is a metabolic reason for his continued failure to gain weight. In addition to having blood….