1. A semen analysis on a vasovasostomy patient has a normal sperm concentration; however, motility is decreased, and clumping is observed on the wet preparation. a. Explain the possible connection….
Demonstrate the knowledge and key attributes required by those seeking to enter professional health and social care practice. Successfully complete key aspects of the Care Certificate.
For this task, you will choose and examine a publicly listed company that you are considering analyzing for your final project. You will provide the reason you are choosing to analyze this company for your final project, introduce the key goods and services provided by the company, and explain how the company is organized.
Prompt: First, review the Final Project Guidelines and Rubric document so that you understand the scope of the final project. Then, visit the webpage SEC EDGAR Company Filings, and select a company for your final project. Research the company’s background using the corporate website and other web resources. Be sure to cite your sources in APA style.
Next, identify the company and address the following critical elements:
- Company Selection: Explain why you have you chosen this company for your final project (personal interest, business interest, professional interest, etc.).
- Financial Context: Key Goods or Services/Features: Describe the key goods and services your selected organization provides. Include information about where, why, and for whom they are provided. Separate the financial interest of the company into financial and nonfinancial features. For example: Are they a manufacturer offering their own financing to customers? Is the company currently facing any financial woes? Explain how these features of the organization (e.g., major products or services, customers, location) help set the boundaries for business decisions.
- Financial Context: Organized: Describe how the company is organized (by product groups, geographic region, function, etc.). Explain how the organization of the company affects accounting and financial information and subsequent business decisions. Hint: A good place to search for this information is in the notes in financial statements. For example: Is the company filing using GAAP, and are there any provisions for non-GAAP filing? Or, how are revenues treated from foreign subsidiaries?
Location of Institution
Radiographers must effectively exhibit their ability to use both verbal and non-verbal forms of communication. They must demonstrate their competency in being professionals in how they communicate such as being able to effectively pass accurate information. A radiographer should also be able to effectively advise, and be a consultant to people that require their services, as in both patients and colleagues. As a radiographer in the UK, it is vital that one must know and be able to proficiently communicate in English, the HCPC recommends that one speaks English that is equal to level 7 of the International English Language Testing System, having no element that is under 6.5. Radiographers interact with patients of different age, religions, gender and cultural backgrounds and it is, therefore, essential that a radiographer becomes aware of their patient’s beliefs and communicate within boundaries that might not make the patient uncomfortable. The manner in which communication takes place between the patient and the radiographer greatly affects the type of assessment that the radiographer will come up with and it should also be taken to account how engaging with patients and colleagues can be improved to deliver better healthcare. Radiographers should understand the importance of providing information to patients or their guardians about the health status of the patient to enable them to make better decisions (*|MC: SUBJECT|*, 2020). Communication can be between a healthcare profession and a patient and this type of communication should be carried in a manner in which the healthcare worker tries to get as much useful information as they can, relevant to the case. Utmost respect should be accorded to the patient, taking into consideration the comfort of the patient. In the radiology department, machines such as the MRI can be loud, inducing a sense of discomfort to the patient (*|MC: SUBJECT|*, 2020). The radiographer must explain to the patient, making them understand the procedure they are about to undergo as their cooperation is key to help them come to a definitive diagnosis. For example, a radiographer needs to explain to a patient that they need to stay still while the imaging is being done to get a clear image. (Motley, and Walker, 2017).
“As radiographers interact with countless patients it is required by the Society’s Code of Professional Conduct to consider introducing yourself and provide necessary details when the patient begins treatment or evaluation,” said Richard Evans who is the Chief Executive Officer of the society’s Code of Professional Conduct. The Society’s Code of Professional Conduct states that one must appropriately communicate and interact with patients by introducing yourself and giving information that is relevant during their examination or treatment (*|MC: SUBJECT|*, 2020). It is, therefore, important that the radiographer establishes a rapport with the patient or the guardian to make the patient comfortable around them. When the patient is comfortable with the healthcare provider, they become more open to asking questions about their health.
The Parliamentary and Health Service Ombudsman published a report (2015) which highlighted how poor communication consequently led to errors in treatment and diagnosis. The report showed how a non-medical factor greatly impacted the delivery of healthcare services and how this greatly impacts the healthcare sector in terms of losing revenue and resources. The report showed that poor mode of communication which included the accuracy and the quality of the information provided to the patients or between colleagues accounted for 35% of all complaints. This is a large portion but was, however, noted to be a drop compared to the previous years, which was at 42%. Of these complaints in 2015, 71% of complaints of poor communication were between the hospital and the patient, or a family member to the patient. The remaining 29% were cases involving poor communication between colleagues, either in the same or different hospital facilities (Ford and Ford 2020).
Communication also takes place between colleagues. Confidentiality must be maintained while consulting a colleague that is not assigned to the same case. If a patient is being transferred to a different department, all the key information about that patient must be relayed. This smooth communication ensures that patient care is executed efficiently. For example, if a patient is being moved from the radiology department to say, the surgery department, it is essential that the radiographer compiles a comprehensive report about the patient, ensuring that the next procedure in line takes place immediately instead of trying to gather the information all over again. Communication should be using an official language and any abbreviations used should be standardized (Peate, 2019).
Some challenges can occur in communication. One problem is the language barrier; whereby a patient may be brought in and he or she does not speak the native language of the region, in this case, English. An example is that a patient of African descent may be brought into the radiology department. On trying to establish communication, I realize that he cannot understand or speak English as he only knows Swahili. This will make communication difficult and if a solution is not found, it might hinder the delivery of healthcare services and the following of instructions by the patient. Possible solutions include the tracing of a family member who might understand both English and Swahili to act as a translator between me, and the patient. If this is not applicable then services of a professional translator may be procured to assist with the translation. (Motley, and Walker, 2017)
Privacy and Dignity
The boundaries defining privacy and dignity is relative from one person to another. Privacy can be said to be the respect accorded to personal space and information of an individual while dignity places attention on the essence and worth of every human being as a separate individual. Privacy and dignity are expressed by how the healthcare profession treats a patient. One first must understand their self-worth, by conducting themselves in an honorable manner to be able to respect the dignity of a patient (Peate, 2016). Every patient should be treated equally irrespective of age, gender, or race, bearing in mind that despite the set standards that enable us to give patients standard care, some factors may require fine-tuning. Different people have different expectations of how they expect to be treated. In a hospital setting, inpatients may be dressed in hospital gowns (Peate, 2016). The gowns should, therefore, give the patient a sense of decency (Privacy and dignity (PD) standard | Society of Radiographers, 2020). As a radiographer, an interaction may involve physical contact in trying to get the patient into a comfortable position to enable the capturing of accurate images. I must engage the patient on how we can interact in a particular setting. A radiographer needs to understand the limits that they cannot trespass (Privacy and dignity (PD) standard | Society of Radiographers, 2020). An example is I need to ask the patient for their permission before I initiate any contact as physical contact may be a sensitive issue. Information gathered from the patient should only be shared with the physician on the case and questions asked should only be relevant to obtaining information relevant to the delivery of healthcare services. At no given point can I discuss patient’s information with my colleagues (Peate, 2016).
A Post-Mortem Cross-Sectional Imaging can be a very sensitive topic, depending on the culture and beliefs of the relatives of the deceased. Should there be a need to perform PMC-SI, the radiographer must be aware of the sensitive nature of the test and offer assurance to the family that the dignity of the deceased is a priority. The radiographer must, therefore, be able to explain to the family the protocols that have been put in place such as transit, the designated waiting area, and how the body would be handled during the test. This can be reinforced by explaining the channels of communication, and the documentation of the procedure to ensure it has been carried out as protocol suggest. It is also essential to have a system set up which functions to reinforce the appropriate handling of the deceased. Information should also be conveyed in a format that is comprehensive to the family of the deceased and opportunities to make inquiries should also be provided.
Health and Safety
The radiology department should be a well-restricted area basically due to the fact that one can become exposed to radiation if the area is not well regulated. It is, therefore, vital that all radiographers are tuned to understanding the importance of having a safe environment for the patients, their colleagues, and themselves. All radiographers must be updated on the regulations and legislations encompassing their scope of operations. This helps the radiographer to have a standard procedure of operation in case of emergencies or incidences as they are well acquainted with the protocols. They should understand the essence of being calm in case of emergencies to prevent unnecessary escalation of the situation which might create a hazardous environment. Radiographers need to ensure the physical safety of patients and any other personnel in the radiology section, by ensuring that unauthorized people do not access the radiology room and machines. This is because it is easy to be exposed to unnecessary radiation which might have harmful effects on the person exposed. This can be done by having posters put up showing that unauthorized personnel cannot proceed beyond a certain area.
The radiology department can also use standard sterilization procedures, to help minimize the risk of infections within the area. Regular disinfection of surfaces and machines are important in providing a safe environment for the patient, the radiologist, and any other caregiver present. The radiologist needs to be informed of the procedure of disinfecting different surfaces, the principles behind the sterilization, and how they can be applied. If a surface becomes contaminated, there should be an appropriate protocol for decontaminating the site and an efficient and safe mode of waste disposal. If a patient with an infectious disease needs a scan, the radiologist on the case should wear protective clothing such as a mask, to protect themselves and their colleagues after they are done interacting with the patient. The radiologist should be able to select appropriate personal protective equipment, relevant to the type of situation they are managing (Privacy and dignity (PD) standard | Society of Radiographers, 2020).
How movement from one area of the hospital to another is carried out is also important. Running within the radiology department should not be allowed as this is a hazard in the working environment which can result in injuries. Beds or wheelchairs that are used to move patients should not be left in the corridors unattended as they may limit movement. Medical emergencies might occur in situations where the radiologist is the caregiver available and they must, therefore, have a degree of knowledge about basic life support. A radiologist should familiarize themselves with first aid procedures such as performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) when a patient or a colleague cannot breathe on their own. Since there is a lot of equipment and machines in radiology, radiologists should know how to operate them, and the conditions in which the machines should be handled. Attending seminars can be an effective way of learning new procedures and protocols as new equipment is developed.
Equity and Diversity
A radiographer should be able to perform their work without any form of prejudice. As a healthcare provider, it is important for one to understand that people from all backgrounds and profiles may seek their services (1. Introduction | Society of Radiographers, 2020). The radiographer should understand the forms of prejudices that clients may be susceptible to such as racism, stigmatization due to disabilities, or gender inequalities among several others. The radiographer should, therefore, understand that they need to distance themselves from such prejudices and work professionally, demonstrating their belief inequality (1. Introduction | Society of Radiographers, 2020). They should be open-minded to respecting the suggestions of their clients who may share different cultural beliefs from theirs, without showing any form of disagreement. Radiographers should perform the same procedure in the same manner to patients from all walks of life. In discharging their duties, a radiographer can find out more information about the culture, religion, race, or heritage of a patient or client so as to be aware of how they can communicate better with the patient. By gaining information about the background of the client, the radiographer can manage to beat stereotypes and therefore, address all their clients with the standard services expected (1. Introduction | Society of Radiographers, 2020).
Despite trying to apply equality and diversity to the cases and patients they manage, radiographers are also tasked with trying to uphold equality and diversity in their profession. They are expected to demonstrate that the profession can be done by anyone regardless of gender, race, or religion. Like any other profession, radiography is a male-dominated profession and it is essential that everyone in the profession put their efforts to empower the woman, to facilitate equality (1. Introduction | Society of Radiographers, 2020). Other marginalized groups such as people with various disabilities should be also be considered in the profession. Radiographers should champion for the diversity of their profession, through the use of their regulatory body (HCPC) in establishing rules that uphold diversity. A radiologist should report to the relevant authority any incidence of oppression on marginalized groups (1. Introduction | Society of Radiographers, 2020).
Infection Prevention and Control
In carrying out radiological exams on patients with infectious diseases, the radiological rooms should be frequently sterilized to remove any pathogens that might lead to cross infections. Standard disinfection procedure should be followed, following the stipulated concentrations of disinfectants. Places that require clients and patients to lie on should be sterilized once a procedure is complete. During outbreaks, such as the SARS-CoV-2, the radiological rooms can be modified to adapt to the situation, such as the changing of the paths patients with suspected infections are supposed to take.
Radiographers must wear personal protective equipment to protect themselves, their colleagues, and other patients from infections. After performing a procedure on an infected patient, all the personal protective equipment should be disposed of in a well-labeled bin. Adjustments such as installing sensors on the doors to enable them open and close automatically are important in controlling the infections by limiting contact with infected surfaces. Radiographers, like any other healthcare professionals, should be in the frontline of educating patients and the community a large in the manner in which they can prevent the further spread of infections.
Peate, I., 2016. Care Certificate Standards 7 and 8: Privacy and dignity; and Fluids and nutrition. British Journal of Healthcare Assistants, 10(2), pp.95-99.
Peate, I., 2019. The Care Certificate. Learning to Care E-Book: The Nurse Associate, p.12.
Sor.org. 2020. *|MC:SUBJECT|*. [online] Available at: <https://www.sor.org/ezines/scortalk/issue-18/how-important-communication-patients> [Accessed 19 June 2020].
Sor.org. 2020. Privacy And Dignity (PD) Standard | Society Of Radiographers. [online] Available at: <https://www.sor.org/learning/document-library/standards-radiographic-practice-post-mortem-cross-sectional-imaging-pmc-si/privacy-and-d