Four strain gauges, with specification given below, are available to measure the torque on a cylindrical shaft 4 cm in diameter connecting a motor and load. (a) Draw clearly labelled….

## Convert the binding constants to dissociation constants and give the pKa,A for each dissociation constant.

(a) Write the binding polynomial for ATP at 298.15K in terms of binding constants in the absence of Mg for application between 3 <>_{c} < 14.=”” assume=”” ideal=”” solutions.=”” hint:=”” use=”” untransformed=”” equilibrium=”” constants=”” calculated=”” from=”” the=”” gibbs=”” energies=”” of=”” formation,=”” and=”” ignore=”” the=”” species=”” that=”” don’t=”” have=”” gibbs=”” energies=”” tabulated=”” in=”” the=”” appendix.=””>

(b) Convert the binding constants to dissociation constants and give the pKa,A for each dissociation constant.

(c) Using the binding constants, calculate and plot the *vs. pH for ATP between 3 <> _{c} < 14.=”” mark=”” the=””> at the pK_{a,A }values determined in (b).*

(d) Give the fraction of each species at a pH_{c} = 7.6.