Compare the softening points for 96% silica, borosilicate, and soda–lime glasses.

 

1. Compare the softening points for 96% silica, borosilicate, and soda–lime glasses.

2. The viscosity of a glass varies with temperature according to the relationship

 

where Qvis is the energy of activation for viscous flow, is a temperature-independent constant, and and are, respectively, the gas constant and the absolute temperature. A plot of ln versus l/T should be nearly linear, and with a slope of Qvis/R.

Using the data in Figure 13.14,

(a) make such a plot for the borosilicate glass, and

(b) determine the activation energy between temperatures of 500 and 900°C.

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erive the differential equations in terms of the liquid heights h1 and h2.

  Figure 7.18 shows a liquid-level system in which two tanks have cross-sectional areas A1 and A2, respectively. The volume flow rate into tank 1 is qi. A pump is connected to the bottom….

Derive the differential equation relating the liquid height h and the volume flow rate qi at the inlet.

  Consider the single-tank liquid-level system shown in Figure 7.19, where the volume flow rate into the tank through a pipe is qi. The liquid leaves the tank through an orifice….

Derive the differential equations in terms of the liquid heights h1 and h2.

Figure 7.20 shows a hydraulic system of two interconnected tanks that have the same cross-sectional area of A. A pump is connected to tank 1. Assume that the relationship between the….