Cellular Metabolism Lab
We will walk through the steps of Cellular Respiration in this activity. Please do not skip ahead or leave out steps. This assignment will help you to gain a deeper understanding of cellular respiration (the process of making energy, ATP, the major contributor to our overall metabolism). Pages 941-948 in you TEXTBOOK should help you answer the questions. This assignment is worth 72 pts total (each question is worth 1 point unless otherwise noted).
Instruction Notes: Complete this worksheet using one of the following ways (not both):
1) Print out this document and the metabolism shapes document. Cut out the metabolism shapes and then add your answers and images of shapes to the designated questions. Then scan or take a picture of each page and upload the entire document for grading.
2) Answer the questions on this template and copy/paste your images from the metabolism shapes document to the specified locations below. Images from any other source will not be accepted! Then save this document to your computer and upload the entire document for grading.
3) Before you begin, if you are printing this document, you will need to cut out all the shapes on the accompanying metabolism shapes document.
I. Glycolysis- The splitting of Glucose
1) Arrange individual carbons from the metabolism shapes document to form glucose- a six carbon molecules.
2) Now cut your glucose molecule into 2 pyruvate molecules.
3) Insert an image of your two pyruvate molecules here (Worth up to 2pts).
Answer the Following Questions after completing glycolysis:
4) Where does glycolysis occur? _________________________________
5) We began with glucose which is a ___ -carbon glucose molecule.
6) After ten separate reactions glucose is split into two ____________ molecules.
7) How many carbons does each molecule in question 6 contain? _____
8) The energy released during the breakdown of glucose causes two products to be made. The first product is two _______________ molecules which are which are used as reversible energy carriers.
9) The second product in question 8 is two _______________, which is usable energy for the cell.
10) Where do the 2 molecules of NADH that are produced in glycolysis go? ____________
11) Write out the final products of glycolysis. (3 points)
Glucose _____________ + ______________+ __________________
IIA. Anaerobic Respiration
12) This process requires _________ and NADH molecules from glycolysis.
13) In human cells, what is the product of anaerobic respiration? ______________
14) Using the metabolism shapes, insert the chemical equation for anaerobic respiration. Put reactants to the left of the arrow and products on the right. (Worth up to 3 pts)
Answer the following questions:
15) In the absence of oxygen, name the process that pyruvate goes through. ______________________ cellular respiration.
16) Where will this reaction occur in the ____________ of the cell?
17) What is the fate of lactate? Where does it go within the body? ____________
IIB. In the presence of Oxygen—Formation of Acetyl-Co A
18) In the presence of oxygen, pyruvate would instead go through ___________cellular respiration.
19) To create the chemical formula for the formation of acetyl-CoA, place your pyruvate plus co-enzyme A on the left side of the arrow. On the right you will put the products. Insert your formula here. (worth up to 3 points)
Answer these questions to help you determine those products.
20) This reaction occurs in ________________ of the cell?
21) Pyruvate bonds with __________________ to form acetyl co-enzyme A.
22) The excess carbon is bonded to oxygen to form two _______________ molecules (metabolic waste products).
23) The excess energy is stored in two ___________________ molecules (reversible energy carriers).
24) Acetyl Co-enzyme A can now enter the _________________ cycle.
What happens to each product of formation of Acetyl-co A? (Worth 1 pt each)
25) CO2- _________
26) NADH- _________
27) Acetyl Co-A- _________
III. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
28) What molecule does acetyl-Co A bind with at the beginning of the Krebs cycle? _________
29) What is the product of the reaction in question 28? _________
List the important products for one glucose molecule (2 rounds of Krebs Cycle) and their fate table below. *Hint: This is not asking for the intermediate molecules (i.e. isocitric acid, succinic acid, etc.). Look for products in the bubbles in figure 25.8 (pg. 947) in your textbook.
Table 1: Products of Krebs Cycle and their Fates. Worth 8 pts total.
|Krebs Cycle Products (up to 4 pts)||Fate of Each Product (up to 4 pts)|
Answer the following questions about Krebs Cycle
38) Krebs Cycle occurs in __________________ of the cell.
39) Below, add an arrow to label the specific location in the organelle where the Krebs cycle occurs.
40) How are NADH and FADH2 used in the Krebs Cycle? ________________
41) Where do they go once formed? ______________________________
IV. Electron Transport Chain (Oxidative Phosphorylation)
The final reaction of aerobic respiration uses energy harvested elsewhere to generate ATP. Tally the NADH and FADHs that have come here from the previous aerobic steps on your electron transport chain sheet. Fill in the table below with your results. This will remind you of how many NADH and FADH2 molecules you should have and where they come from.
|Glycolysis||Intermediate Step||Krebs Cycle|
|How many NADH came to the electron transport chain from Glycolysis?
|How many NADH came to the electron transport chain from the intermediate step?
|How many NADH and FADHs came to the electron transport chain from Krebs Cycle?
Table 2: The Sources of NADH and FADH2 in Aerobic Respiration
Building your Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
Use the diagram below to answer the following questions about the electron transport chain.
46) Label the mitochondrial matrix on the image above.
47) Where did the hydrogens (H+) in the matrix come from? _________
48) What else do NADH and FADH2 carry that gets transferred to the ETC proteins? *Hint: these provide energy to those proteins. _________
49) Label the inner membrane space on the image above.
50) Where did the hydrogens (H+) in the inner membrane space come from? _________
51) How did the hydrogens (H+) in the intermembrane space get there? _________
52) How do the number of hydrogens in the inner membrane space compare to the mitochondrial matrix? _________
53) Label ATP Synthase on the image above.
54) What is the function of ATP synthase? _________
55) Insert the reactants in the chemical equation to make ATP (worth 2 points).
________ + ________ ATP
56) How are the hydrogens (H+) from the inner membrane space involved in the action of ATP synthase? _________
57) The electron transport chain is located within the __________________ of the mitochondria.
58) Add an arrow to label this region on the mitochondria pictured below.
Finalizing the ETC reactions
59) Both the electron and the H+ that are now back in the matrix are “captured” when they are bonded to ________________ (last electron acceptor).
60) This process in question 59 forms _____________.
Summary of ATP/ Product Production
61) In anaerobic respiration, how many ATP molecules are produced? _____
62) In aerobic respiration, about how many ATP molecules are produced? _______. This sum is the total from each phase of cellular respiration.
How many ATP molecules come from each step of this process?
63) Glycolysis? ____
64) Citric Acid Cycle? ____
65) NADH and FADH2 molecules that pass through the ETC? ____
Note: The number of ATP molecules produced from each glucose molecule is theoretical because some tissues/ organs are more efficient like the liver, kidneys and heart. While other organs such as the brain and skeletal muscles are less efficient.
66) In addition to ATP, aerobic respiration produces ______ CO2 molecules.