A surgical procedure requires reversal of oral anticoagulation to guarantee adequate hemostasis during and after the operation.

A surgical procedure requires reversal of oral anticoagulation to guarantee adequate hemostasis during and after the operation. This does not generally apply, however, to low dose (8 1 mg/d) aspirin therapy since, unlike high-dose antiplatelet drug therapy, it is not associated with increased perioperative bleeding. The key to management of a patient on long-term warfarin therapy is to minimize the “unanticoagulated” interval and the associated risk for a thromboembolic event. Patients maintained at an INR of 2-3 can usually be managed by discontinuing their oral anticoagulant 4 days prior to their surgery to reach an INR below 1 .5 on the day of surgery. This time interval wi ll al low a return of depressed coagulation factors, in patients with normal liver function, to levels above 30%. If the patient has a higher chronic INR range (> 3), then warfarin should be discontinued 5-6 days prior to the procedure. If surgery is urgent, the time delay to “normalizing the INR” can be shortened by the administration of vitamin K or an infusion of fresh frozen plasma. However, while the INR may appear to rapidly shorten with vitamin K therapy, this is largely a result of a rapid retum of factor VII, not factors IX, X, and II (prothrombin), which still require several days to recover. In addition, vitamin K therapy can make it extremely difficult to reinstitute warfarin therapy after surgery. Fresh frozen plasma must be given in volumes up to 1-1 .5 L (one-third of the estimated plasma volume in a patient with an INR >2 and factor levels.

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Prepare an annotated bibliography for the resources you identified.

This week’s assignment will be to create an Annotated Bibliography for your Course Project Topic. Using the Rasmussen Library, identify at least 2 resources pertaining to your topic using the….

What is the specific concept

The paper has to be 5 full pages (Excluding the Title page, Abstract, and References) a total of 8 pages The paper is divided as follows: A) The Title of….

Create a culturagram for your selected population.

Throughout the course, you’ll use the map below to engage important population health concepts. Click on each hot spot to learn more about the population in that area. This week,….