Name and briefly discuss the two types of effects that accompany the term motivating operation (MO). Define and discuss the similarities and differences between unconditioned motivating operations (UMO’s) and conditioned motivating operations (CMO’s). Compare and contrast the different types of conditioned motivating operations (CMO’s). State and discuss one example of an unconditioned motivating operation (UMO) as it relates to a human organism. Discuss the antecedent variables SDand MO. Provide a concrete example to illustrate the arguments you make. Give at least two motivating operations in your life; specify the MO (EO or AO?), and the behavior and reinforcement they influence.
Daily Archives: October 20, 2020
Mr. Akkad is a 76 year old Iranian male who is brought to your office by his eldest son for “strange behavior.” Mr. Akkad was seen by his family physician who ruled out any organic basis for Mr. Akkad’s behavior. All laboratory and diagnostic imaging tests (including CT-scan of the head) were normal. According to his son, he has been demonstrating some strange thoughts and behaviors for the past two years, but things seem to be getting worse. Per the client’s son, the family noticed that Mr. Akkad’s personality began to change a few years ago. He began to lose interest in religious activities with the family and became more “critical” of everyone. They also noticed that things he used to take seriously had become a source of….
In July of 1994, Jeff Bezos launched Amazon.com, initially as an online book retailer. In 2016, the company reported $136 billion in revenues. Your research assignment is to understand how Jeff grew this company so fast. Begin your essay by describing the key strategies that Jeff Bezos employed to grow the company during the past 23 years. Use credible sources and research to support and explain.
This is not an “opinion Essay,” it is purely a research essay within which you report findings from credible resources for the majority of the essay. At the end of the essay, draw your conclusion regarding the
(a) strategies employed,
(b) missteps that occurred, and finally
(c) what future strategies you would recommend Mr. Bezos employ to continue growth.
You have a new summer job with NASA and are working on astronomical observations using electromagnetic radiation that is not in the visible range. Your supervisor has explained 21cm radiation to you and that it is used for a number of observations of interstellar hydrogen. She explains that 21-cm radiation is in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum and comes from a hyperfine splitting of the electron ground state of hydrogen. It is similar to the Zeeman effect, except that it is the spin states that are split, and the magnetic field is internal to the atom: it comes from the magnetic field due to the nucleus. When the atom makes a transition from the higher state to the lower state, a 21-cm photon is emitted. Based….
You are hired as an expert witness by the attorney representing a doctor. The doctor is being sued by a patient who claimed radiation damage from the doctor’s x-ray machine. The plaintiff argues that the machine must not have been properly shielded, exposing him to dangerous radiation. Your visit to the doctor’s office shows the following results. You do indeed measure x-radiation in the doctor’s office, with a minimum wavelength of 30.0 pm. Consultation with the doctor and inspection of his x-ray machine shows that it accelerates electrons through a voltage of 35.0 kV before they strike the target, producing bremsstrahlung. What advice do you give the attorney?
The Dulong–Petit law states that the molar specific heat of solids is 3R at higher temperatures, where R is the gas constant. For metals, this law is obeyed at room temperature, 300 K. The absorption of energy appears as internal energy in the metal in two primary ways: (1) vibration of metal lattice ions locked into crystalline positions and (2) translational kinetic energy of free electrons. The number of free electrons in a metal is approximately proportional to kBT/EF , since only those electrons near the Fermi energy can be thermally excited into available states. From this information, work with your group to determine the percentage of the total molar specific heat that is attributed to free electrons in gold.
The world’s oceans contain a vast repository of energy. Your group has been tasked to determine which would provide more energy: mining the uranium in the ocean to use in fission reactors, or mining the deuterium in the ocean to use in fusion reactors. Divide your group into two halves and find the available energy in the ocean from each source. Group (i): Fission fuel. Seawater contains 3.00 mg of uranium per cubic meter. About 0.700% of naturally occurring uranium is the fissionable isotope 235U. Group (ii): Fusion fuel. Of all the hydrogen in the oceans, 0.030 0% of the mass is deuterium. Two deuterons fuse to form helium in the form 4 2He. Assume all the deuterium in the oceans is fused to form helium. For both….
Your group is a radiology department in a hospital. Two patients in your waiting room are arguing about who “got more radiation” in their cancer treatments. Patient A received 2.0 Gy of radiation, while Patient B received 1.0 Gy. Patient A is claiming that he had twice as much energy delivered to his body based on these numbers. Upon further investigation, it is determined that Patient A received radiation from fast neutrons, RBE 10, affecting 22 g of tissue. Patient B received alpha particles, RBE 18, affecting 30 g of tissue. (a) Who “got more radiation” in terms of biological effectiveness for radiation damage and (b) by what factor?
This activity simulates the statistical decay of radioactive nuclei. Packages of 100 dice can be purchased online. (a) First, think about the following procedure, but don’t do it yet: Put 100 dice in a bag and shake for a few seconds. Roll out the dice on a tabletop. Each such roll of the dice will represent one time interval Dt. Remove all the dice showing a one on the upper face, and set them aside. Record the remaining number N of dice. Put the remaining dice back in the bag, shake, and roll out again. Repeat this procedure, always removing the dice showing a number one from those on the table, until only a few dice remain. Second, after thinking about this procedure, predict the half-life of the….
You are working as a technician in the radiology department of a large hospital. One of the radioactive isotopes that is used to treat cancer is 60Co. Although use of this isotope is decreasing due to the availability of electrons from linear accelerators, 60Co is still in wide use where accelerators are not available. A radiologist has asked you to supply a container of 60Co, and you need to determine if a particular sample on the supply shelf is still viable for use. During your training, you learned that cobalt is not viable for medical use if its activity has fallen to 60.0% of its activity when delivered to the hospital. The label on the sample states that the delivery date was January 31, over three-and-a-half years ago. It is….